Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and external factors. Symptoms of brain injuries vary based on the severity of the injury or how much of the brain is affected. The three categories used brain damage caused by medication classifying the severity of brain injuries are mild, moderate or severe. Symptoms of a mild brain injury include headaches, confusions, ringing ears, fatigue, changes in sleep patterns, mood or behavior.
Other symptoms include trouble with memory, concentration, attention or thinking. Narcolepsy and sleep disorders are common misdiagnoses. Cognitive symptoms include confusion, aggressive, abnormal behavior, slurred speech, and coma or other disorders of consciousness. Physical symptoms include headaches that do not go away or worsen, vomiting or nausea, convulsions, abnormal dilation of the eyes, inability to awaken from sleep, weakness in extremities and loss of coordination. Symptoms observed in children include changes in eating habits, persistent irritability or sadness, changes in attention, disrupted sleeping habits, or loss of interest in toys. Symptoms of brain injuries can also be influenced by the location of the injury and as a result impairments are specific to the part of the brain affected. Lesion size is correlated with severity, recovery, and comprehension. There may also be personality changes. Even a mild incident can have long-term effects or cause symptoms to appear years later.
Studies show there is a correlation between brain lesion and language, speech, and category-specific disorders. Broca’s aphasia is indicative of damage to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the brain. An impairment following damage to a region of the brain does not necessarily imply that the damaged area is wholly responsible for the cognitive process which is impaired, however. However, this does not mean one suffering from pure alexia is incapable of comprehending speech—merely that there is no connection between their working visual cortex and language areas—as is demonstrated by the fact that pure alexics can still write, speak, and even transcribe letters without understanding their meaning. Amygdala lesions change the functional pattern of activation to emotional stimuli in regions that are distant from the amygdala. Unlike some of the more obvious responses to brain damage, the body also has invisible physical responses which can be difficult to notice. These will generally be identified by a healthcare provider, especially as they are normal physical responses to brain damage. Cytokines may be useful in order to discover novel therapeutic strategies.
At the current time, they are already in clinical trials. The immediate response can take many forms. Initially, there may symptoms such as swelling, pain, bruising, or loss of consciousness. As time progresses, and the severity of injury becomes clear, there are further responses that may become apparent. Amnesia is a condition in which a person is unable to remember things.
Headaches, occasional dizziness, or fatigue, all temporary symptoms of brain trauma, may become permanent, or may not disappear for a long time. There are documented cases of lasting psychological effects as well, such as emotional swings often caused by damage to the various parts of the brain that control human emotions and behavior. Some who have experience emotional changes related to brain damage may have emotions that come very quickly and are very intense, but have very little lasting effect. Emotional changes may not be triggered by a specific event, and can be a cause of stress to the injured party and their family or friends. It may also be covered by insurance, or offered at a discounted price, or for free. See local resource centers near you for more information. It is important to note that the long term psychological and physiological effects will vary by person and injury.
For example, perinatal brain pills in south africa damage has been implicated in cases of neurodevelopmental impairments and psychiatric illnesses. If any concerning symptoms, signs, or changes to behaviors are occurring, a healthcare provider should be consulted. Different types and degrees of trauma will cause different effects, and if any concerning symptoms, signs, or changes to behaviors are occurring, a healthcare provider should be consulted. Brain injuries can result from a number of conditions including open head injury, closed head injury, deceleration injuries, exposure to toxic chemicals, lack of oxygen, tumors, infections, stroke. Radiation and chemotherapy can lead to brain tissue damage by disrupting or stopping blood flow to the affected areas of the brain. The brain damage caused by radiation depends on where the brain tumor is located, the amount of radiation used, and the duration of the treatment. Radiosurgery can also lead to tissue damage that results in about 1 in 20 patients requiring a second operation to remove the damaged tissue.
Wernicke’s encephalopathy causes bleeding in the thalamus or hypothalamus, which controls the nervous and endocrine system. Due to the bleeding, brain damage occurs causing problems with vision, coordination and balance. Wernicke’s decrease and result from chronic brain damage. This method is based on the objective observations of specific traits to determine the severity of a brain injury. It is based on three traits eye opening, verbal response, and motor response, gauged as described below. Based on the Glasgow Coma Scale severity is classified as follows, severe brain injuries score 3-8, moderate brain injuries score 9-12 and mild score 13-15. CT scans and MRI are the two techniques widely used and are most effective.
CT scans can show brain bleeds, fractures of the skull, fluid build up in the brain that will lead to increased cranial pressure. MRI is able to better to detect smaller injuries, detect damage within the brain, diffuse axonal injury, injuries to the brainstem, posterior fossa, and subtemporal and subfrontal regions. However patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other metal within their bodies are unable to have an MRI done. Typically the other imaging techniques are not used in a clinical setting because of the cost, lack of availability. Sensory stimulation refers to regaining sensory perception through the use of modalities. There is no evidence to support the efficacy of this intervention. Functional training may also be used to treat patients with TBIs.
Overall, studies suggest that patients with TBIs who participate in more intense rehabilitation programs will see greater benefits in functional skills. More research is required to better understand the efficacy of the treatments mentioned above. There are many misconceptions that revolve around brain injuries and brain damage. One misconception is that if someone has brain damage then they cannot fully recover. Testing is done to note severity and location. Not everyone fully heals from brain damage, but it is possible to have a full recovery. Brain injuries are very hard to predict in outcome. Many tests and specialists are needed to determine the likelihood of the prognosis. The side- effects of a brain injury depend on location and the body’s response to injury.